**Quantum key distribution: here is the new frontier for encrypting data**

Quantum computers will be able to decipher increasingly complex messages. And this will make new security technologies, such as Qkd, indispensable. Alberto Gatto, a researcher at the Milan Polytechnic, explains this in the new episode of Tutto Connesso.

11 Apr 2022

Quantum computers will be able to decipher messages that are impossible to intercept today. Quantum Key Distribution aims to solve this problem. But how does it work? And how complicated is it to implement? Alberto Gatto, a researcher at the Milan Polytechnic, explains this in the new episode of Tutto Connesso.

Quantum key distribution

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Quantum key distribution (QKD acronym, from English: Quantum key distribution) is a quantum mechanical system to ensure secure communications [1]. It enables two parties to produce and share a random secret key only between themselves which they can use to encrypt and decrypt their messages. Often, it is improperly called quantum cryptography, since it is the best known example of quantum cryptography operations [2].

An important and unique property of quantum distribution is the ability of the two communicating users to detect the presence of a third party attempting to obtain information about the key, due to the fact that a measurement process in a quantum system in general disturbs the system. .

The security of quantum key distribution relies on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics compared to the traditional key distribution protocol which relies on the computational difficulty of certain mathematical functions, and cannot provide any indication of possible interceptions.

Quantum key distribution is only used to produce and distribute the key, not to convey any message. The key can be used with any encryption and decryption algorithm, which will then transmit the message over a standard communication channel.

The algorithm most commonly associated with this key is the Vernam cipher.

Today’s commercial quantum key distribution systems are specifically designed for governments and businesses with high security requirements.

There are currently 4 companies offering commercial quantum key distribution systems: ID Quantique (Geneva, Switzerland), MagiQ Technologies, Inc. (New York, United States), QuintessenceLabs (Australia) and SeQureNet (Paris, France). Other companies have active research programs, including Toshiba, HP, IBM, Mitsubishi, NEC, and NTT.

In 2004, the first data transfer was carried out using a quantum key distribution in Vienna, Austria [4] The quantum cryptography technology was provided by the Swiss Id Quantique and was used to broadcast the election results of 21 October 2007. [ 5]

COMMENT: The system is based on two statements. L before there are cryptographic systems that resist quantum computers, which we contest because our CRIPTEOS 3001 is actually resistant to them. The second is that we continue to use public and private key algorithms. So it is stated that with quantum computers the computation of prime numbers linking the public key and the private key, hitherto impossible to do with traditional computers, is solved. Quantum Key Distribution, if it works, solves this problem and allows you to transmit the private key. Key which, as already stated, with known cryptographic systems, is quietly violated by the quantum computer. In addition, there remains the problem of false certificates of those who issue public keys, a trick that allows you to get hold of private keys. Our system has two keys of 128 kilobytes and therefore it is inviolable and fast, besides all it can be customized with a third key to differentiate the algorithms of the various customers. And if they want to transmit our keys with the quantum key distribution system, fine, but avoid saying that there are no cryptographic systems that resist the brute force attacks of quantum computers.